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Archives de Catégorie: Windows 10

Tricks : can’t see my LOB app in the Windows Business Store !

If like us you’re desperately trying to publish a new LOB app in your Microsoft Business Store, here is 2 tricks to solve the issue…


Your Windows 10 LOB app is ready to be deployed to your organisation, so you submit it to the store. In the « Pricing and availability » > « Distribution and visibility » section of the submission, you chose « LOB distribution » and checked the store corresponding to your organisation.

Publish LOB app

The certification process is OK, the publication is OK, but the new app doesn’t appear in the Business Store… 😦

Empty Business Store

Trick 1

The first trick is you can check if your app is in the store using the URL https://businessstore.microsoft.com/en-us/store/apps/anything/my_app_storeid (to get the store ID of your app, you open the dashboard of your app and go to App management > App Identity).

Business Store LOB app detail

Trick 2

You see your app thanks to the trick 1, but still not in Manage > New LOB Apps page in the Business Store… So the second trick is to check the language you used to describe your in the submission of you  app to the store. In our case, it was in French only. If I switch from en-us to fr-fr in the URL https://businessstore.microsoft.com/fr-fr/lob/AppDetails, I can now see my app !

Add LOB app to the inventory

And I can add it to the inventory of my private store !


#UWPXAML – Compiled Binding – What’s new in the Anniversary Update?

Coming this summer, Windows 10 Anniversary Update will be more or less a Windows 10 v2.0.
With it comes a lot of new things for the windows app development, and a lot of new features and fixes for Compiled Binding.

Today we’ll see what those new features are and how to use them.

If you want to try them out yourself, you’ll need a Windows Insider build of Windows 10 with its Windows SDK and create a UWP project targeting a min version at least equals to Build 14383. Do not install it on your main work station, it will break any non-Anniversary Update apps.

For this post, I’ll use Windows 10 Build 14383 (available on Fast Ring) with Visual Studio 2015 Update 3.
The Windows SDK for Build 14383 can be found here: https://insider.windows.com/

In case you missed it, I wrote a few posts about compiled binding in the past.
Feel free to read them (again).


Function binding

Previously, it was possible to directly bind events to methods which followed specific rules regarding their parameters, but we were unable to bind the result of a method to a property without a converter which was calling the method for us.

Now, it’s possible to bind methods directly to properties without the need for a converter!
You can provide whatever method you like as long as it has a public accessor and you provide the parameters.


public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
    public MainPage()

    public string GetHelloWorld()
        return "Hello World";

    public Person Roberts = new Person()
        Firstname = "Dread Pirate",
        Lastname = "Roberts"


public class Person
    public string Firstname { get; set; }
    public string Lastname { get; set; }

    public string GetFullname()
        return $"{Firstname} {Lastname}";


<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind GetHelloWorld()}" />
<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Roberts.GetFullname()}" />

The method can have parameters.
You can provide them by setting constants in the XAML or by using data from your ViewModel.


public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
    public MainPage()

    public DateTime Today = DateTime.Now;

    public Person Someone = new Person()
        Firstname = "Some",
        Lastname = "One"

    public string GetPersonFullname(Person person)
        return person.GetFullname();


<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Today.ToString('d', {x:Null})}" />
<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind GetPersonFullname(Someone)}" />

Does the binding is automatically updated when the data is updated?
Well, it is said to work if you set the Mode of the compiled binding to OneWay/TwoWay but I wasn’t able to compile it under VS2015. A few not really understandable compile errors appeared when I used TwoWay binding.

Along that, you may notice some errors appearing in the Error list when using parameters inside your binded functions stating « A value does not fall within the expected range ». It’s a bug of VS2015, but it compiles and runs fine anyway.

I hope those annoying errors will be fixed in the release version.

Dictionary indexers

As part of supporting most use cases without the need for a converter, x:Bind now supports access to a specific key in a dictionary.


public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
    public MainPage()

    public Dictionary<string, string> Dictionary = new Dictionary<string, string>()
        { "A", "Alpha" },
        { "B", "Beta" },
        { "C", "Charlie" },


<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Dictionary['A']}" />
<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Dictionary['B']}" />
<TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Dictionary['C']}" />

It works great but there is a big shortcoming: You can only use constant strings directly set in the XAML.
Using anything else than a string, like an integer, will result in a compile error.
Even string data from your ViewModel won’t work.

Explicit value cast

Contrary to classic Databinding which uses duck typing to check if the binding is valid, compiled binding checks at compile time that the given data matches the property to which it is binded to.
In other words, if the value you’re trying to bind has no implicit cast to the type of the property, you can’t bind it using x:Bind without a converter.
Even if the value’s type declares an explicit cast…

As of the Anniversary Update, you will be able to declare an explicit cast inside a compiled binding, C#-style.


public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
    public MainPage()

    public bool? IsThreeStateNull = null;


<CheckBox Content="IsThreeState = False" IsThreeState="{x:Bind (x:Boolean)IsThreeStateNull}" />

When casting explicitly, you’ll need to refer to the class type by its XAML namespace.
In this case, Boolean is part of the « x: » namespace declaration.

Implicit Visibility conversion

Who don’t know the legendary BooleanToVisibilityConverter?
Everyone, since the first time WPF came around, implemented it over and over in every projects.

x:Bind no longer requires that, it now converts booleans to Visibility by itself! Hurray!
You just need to bind a boolean to a property like Visibility.


public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
    public MainPage()

    public bool IsVisibleFalse = false;
    public bool IsVisibleTrue = true;


<TextBlock Text="I'm not visible!" Visibility="{x:Bind IsVisibleFalse}" />
<TextBlock Text="I'm visible!" Visibility="{x:Bind IsVisibleTrue}" />



You can find a sample project on GitHub regrouping all the examples we saw in this post: http://github.com/TimLariviere/CompiledBinding-AnniversarySample

Écriture/lecture/modification de fichiers dans un projet Universel app/UWP et cordova

Dans nos applications, nous avons pris le parti d’écrire nos fichiers en JSON. Nous avons donc conçu une abstraction (en WinJS, avec un système de promises) qui nous permet d’utiliser des méthodes claires et simples sur toutes les plateformes (WinRT/UWP ou Cordova (iOS/Android) )

Ce module « DataContainer » est disponible dans notre libraire WinJSContrib (Github)

Dans WinJSContrib.DataContainer, nous avons 4 fichiers qui exposent les mêmes méthodes avec des implémentations différentes :

  • read : lecture d’un élément
  • save : enregistrement d’un élément
  • remove : suppression d’un élément
  • list : liste des fichiers d’un container
  • child : création/accès container enfant

Dans une application WinRT/UWP nous allons naturellement utiliser la couche WinRT/UWP pour écrire/lire les fichiers. Pour cela il suffit d’inclure le fichier « winjscontrib.datacontainer.winrt.file.js »

Dans une application cordova IOS ou Android, nous avons plusieurs choix :

  • Utiliser une base de données : winjscontrib.datacontainer.cordova.database.js
  • Utiliser le système de fichiers avec le plugin file : « winjscontrib.datacontainer.cordova.file.js »
  • Utiliser le localStorage : « winjscontrib.datacontainer.localstorage.js » (utilisable en WinRT aussi)

Ensuite, il faut instancier un container parent et l’utiliser partout dans l’application.

Dans le JS des applications Windows 8/Phone il suffit d’instancier le container (dossier) parent :

MyApp.Data.container = new WinJSContrib.DataContainer.WinRTFilesContainer(undefined, { logger: WinJSContrib.Logger });

Et changer WinRTFilesContainer par notre choix (CordovaDatabaseContainer par exemple) pour l’application cordova en faisant attention de ne l’appeler qu’après l’enclenchement de l’évènement deviceready.

Et c’est tout, la magie s’opère à l’intérieur de notre librairie 🙂

Quelques exemples d’utilisation :

  • Pour lire un fichier :
  • Data.container.read(&quot;objKey&quot;).then(function (data) { }, function (error) { });
  • Supprimer un fichier :
  • Data.container.remove(&quot;objKey&quot;).then(function () { }, function (error) { });
  • Enregistrer un fichier :
  • Data.container.save(&quot;objKey&quot;,obj).then(function () { }, function (error) { });
  • Accès à un container enfant (sous dossier) avec la lecture d’un fichier fichier :
  • Data.container.child(folderid).read(&quot;subObjKey&quot;).then( function (subObjInFolderID) { }, function (error) { }));
  • Liste des fichiers dans un container :
  • Data.container.list().then(function (res) {}, function (error) { });

Xamarin – Using SQLite.NET Async with PCL

With Xamarin, it is now easier than ever to share most of the logic between your apps.
Most today’s apps use a lot of data, so deciding how to store them locally can prove a challenge.
SQLite provides a great way to store and query those easily and does support Xamarin. Hurray!

In this post, we’ll see how to setup SQLite in a portable project (PCL) shared by two Xamarin projects (Android, iOS) and a UWP project in Visual Studio.
It should be more or less the same with Xamarin Studio.

If you’re interested in using SQLite.NET with Xamarin.Forms, see the Xamarin.Forms documentation instead.

Portable class library and NuGet packages

First of all, we’ll need to create a portable class library supporting Android, iOS and Windows.
Conveniently, Visual Studio provides a template which exactly fits our needs.


If for any reason you can’t or won’t use this template, you can use the generic « Class Library (Portable) » template instead.
See Xamarin’s Introduction to Portable Class Libraries for more information on it.

Then, we’ll need to add references to SQLite.NET via the NuGet package SQLite.NET.Async-PCL v3.1.1 which comes along with its dependency SQLite.Net.Core-PCL.


That’s all we need to setup the PCL in order to use SQLite.NET.

Using SQLite.NET

Now for the tricky part.

We can now use SQLite in the PCL and thus write it once and be able to use it on each platform. But in order to do so, we’ll need a connection to the SQLite database (and need to create it if it’s not the case).

As we’re targeting three different platforms, each with its own rules on how to access the storage space, SQLite.NET needs several things in order to work : a path to where SQLite should store the database file and a custom implementation of the wrapper around the native sqlite3.

For that, as we’re using SQLite.NET Async, we need to create a SQLiteAsyncConnection.
It’s fairly simple.

public class SQLiteDatabase
    public static SQLiteAsyncConnection GetConnection(string path, ISQLitePlatform sqlitePlatform)
        var connectionFactory = new Func<SQLiteConnectionWithLock>(() => new SQLiteConnectionWithLock(sqlitePlatform, new SQLiteConnectionString(path, storeDateTimeAsTicks: false)));
        return new SQLiteAsyncConnection(connectionFactory);

See what we did there?
We have created a connection to the SQLite database but all the platform-specific parts are passed as parameters, allowing us to have a common method in the PCL project.

The path parameter is a file path which SQLite will use to store its db file.
The ISQLitePlatform parameter is described in the SQLite NuGet package and represents an internal implementation of SQLite for a given platform. Don’t worry, it has already been done for us for Android, iOS and UWP.

Of course, you can use dependency injection or any architecture that fits your needs instead. The key point here is to leave the implementation detail to the output projects.

We’ll come back shortly after to these platform-specific parameters.

For now enjoy!

public class MyEntityRepository
    private SQLiteAsyncConnection _connection;

    public async Task InitializeAsync(string path, ISQLitePlatform sqlitePlatform)
        _connection = SQLiteDatabase.GetConnection(path, sqlitePlatform);

        // Create MyEntity table if need be
        await _connection.CreateTableAsync<MyEntity>();

    public async Task<MyEntity> CreateAsync(string name)
        var entity = new MyEntity()
            Name = name
        var count = await _connection.InsertAsync(entity);
        return (count == 1) ? entity : null;

    public async Task<IEnumerable<MyEntity>> GetAllAsync()
        var entities = await _connection.Table<MyEntity>().OrderBy(m => m.Name).ToListAsync();
        return entities;


Android / iOS / UWP projects

Xamarin.Android and Xamarin.iOS will both need the exact same configuration regarding SQLite.NET, but UWP will need one extra small step.

Along with the obvious reference to the PCL project, we’ll need to reference the SQLite.NET-PCL v3.1.1 NuGet package as well.
Warning : it is not the same package as the one we used earlier.

This one automatically includes the previously seen ISQLitePlatform implementation of the targeted platform.
When referenced in an output project, it brings another dependency with it where all the platform-specific implementation is present.

  • SQLite.Net.Platform.XamarinAndroid when referenced in a Xamarin.Android project
  • SQLite.Net.Platform.XamarinIOS in a Xamarin.iOS project
  • SQLite.Net.Platform.WinRT in a UWP project

Last step is to use our MyEntityRepository by giving it all the platform specific parameters.


private string GetDbPath()
    string documentsPath = System.Environment.GetFolderPath(System.Environment.SpecialFolder.Personal);
    return Path.Combine(documentsPath, "Todo.db3");

protected override async void OnCreate(Bundle bundle)

    // Set our view from the "main" layout resource
    var addButton = FindViewById<Button>(Resource.Id.AddButton);
    var todoListView = FindViewById<ListView>(Resource.Id.TodoListView);
    addButton.Click += OnAddButtonClicked;

    _todoRepository = new TodoRepository();

    var path = GetDbPath();

    await _todoRepository.InitializeAsync(path, new SQLitePlatformAndroid());
    var items = await _todoRepository.GetAllAsync();

    todoListView.Adapter = new ArrayAdapter<string>(this, global::Android.Resource.Layout.SimpleListItem1, items.Select(i => i.Text).ToList());

private async void OnAddButtonClicked(object sender, EventArgs e)
    var todoEditText = FindViewById<EditText>(Resource.Id.TodoEditText);
    var text = todoEditText.Text;
    todoEditText.Text = string.Empty;

    var todoItem = await _todoRepository.CreateAsync(text);
    var todoListView = FindViewById<ListView>(Resource.Id.TodoListView);
    var adapter = todoListView.Adapter as ArrayAdapter<string>;



private string GetDbPath()
    string documentsPath = Environment.GetFolderPath(Environment.SpecialFolder.Personal);
    return Path.Combine(documentsPath, "..", "Library", "Todo.db3");

public override async void ViewDidLoad()
    AddButton.TouchUpInside += OnAddButtonTouchUpInside;
    _todoRepository = new TodoRepository();

    var path = GetDbPath();

    await _todoRepository.InitializeAsync(path, new SQLitePlatformIOS());
    var items = await _todoRepository.GetAllAsync();
    TodoTable.Source = new TodoTableDataSource(items, TodoTable);

private async void OnAddButtonTouchUpInside(object sender, EventArgs e)
    var text = TodoTextField.Text;
    TodoTextField.Text = string.Empty;

    var todoItem = await _todoRepository.CreateAsync(text);

    var source = TodoTable.Source as TodoTableDataSource;


Universal Windows Platform

Remember that one extra small step ? Now is the time to take care of it.

Windows, contrary to Android and iOS, doesn’t have SQLite3 installed by default. So we need to bring sqlite3.dll along in our appx package otherwise we’ll get an exception « Unable to load sqlite3.dll ».
To do so, we’ll need to install the Visual Studio extension for UWP which can be found on the SQLite official website.

Then we just have to add two references in our UWP project.

  • SQLite for Universal Windows Platform (that’s our sqlite3.dll added by the VSIX)
  • Visual C++ 2015 Runtime for Universal Windows Platform (it’s a dependency of the former)

And that’s all for that extra small step.

Now we can use SQLite like in the Android and iOS projects.

public ObservableCollection<TodoItem> Items { get; set; } = new ObservableCollection<TodoItem>();

private async Task<string> GetDbPathAsync()
    var folder = Windows.Storage.ApplicationData.Current.LocalFolder;
    var file = await folder.CreateFileAsync("Todo.db3", CreationCollisionOption.OpenIfExists);
    return file.Path;

protected override async void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e)
    _todoRepository = new TodoRepository();

    var path = await GetDbPathAsync();

    await _todoRepository.InitializeAsync(path, new SQLite.Net.Platform.WinRT.SQLitePlatformWinRT());

    var items = await _todoRepository.GetAllAsync();
    foreach (var todoItem in items)

private async void OnAddTodoItemButtonClicked(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
    var text = TodoTextBox.Text;
    TodoTextBox.Text = string.Empty;

    var item = await _todoRepository.CreateAsync(text);

And there we are! That’s all for today.
Go make some happy users with great apps using SQLite.NET and Xamarin!
I’ve put up a sample project on GitHub, it’s a simple Todo list app working on Android, iOS and UWP : https://github.com/TimLariviere/XamarinSQLite

Auditing your Windows Javascript UWP application in production

Since the launch of Windows 8, I’m writing native Windows applications using HTML and JavaScript, for the Windows store and for enterprise applications. Believe it or not but I’m doing it full time and, so far, I’m really enjoying it. I know many people will disagree, especially in the Windows ecosystem, but I’m really enjoying the productivity and the expressiveness you get by writing rich client applications using HTML. And the beauty with Windows 8, and now Windows 10, is that you have full access in JavaScript to the Windows API, from rich file access, to sensors, Cortana integration, notifications, etc.

Even better, with Windows 10 and the Universal Windows Platform (or UWP) you could write one single application using HTML and JavaScript that will run on Windows desktop, laptop, tablet, phone, IoT devices, Xbox, Hololens and probably much more.

If you are familiar with the web ecosystem, you could also very easily reuse most or all of your skills and application code and use it to build awesome websites, or target other devices, with Github electron to make a Mac OsX version, or use Cordova or React native to reach iOS or Android. It really is an exciting time for web developpers.

As exciting as those experiences have been, there are a few things that are still frustrating. No matter what technology you use for development, one of them is the ability to detect and troubleshoot problems when your application have been released into the wild. Visual Studio is really great and provide many tools to help debug and audit your app on your dev box, but for troubleshooting applications in production, you’re naked in the dark.

Luckily when using web technologies, you could use some wonderful tools like Vorlon.js. This tool is really great because you could target any device, without any prerequisite. You have nothing to install on the client to have great diagnostics from your app.
I previously explained how to use Vorlon.js in production, and how to use it with your JavaScript UWP, follow those post if you want to setup the stage. In this post, we will see an overview of what you can achieve with Vorlon.js for a Windows UWP app in production, and a few guidance. What we will see is not specific to a JavaScript UWP. You could use the same things to debug a Webview in a C# or C++ application.

Inspect the DOM

Vorlon.js is designed from the ground with extensibility in mind. It features many plugins, and you could really easily write your own (we will talk more on that later). One of the most usefull for frontend applications is the DOM explorer. It’s very much like the tools you will find in the developper tools of your favorite browser.
For troubleshooting issues in production, it is very interesting to see what appened into the DOM, what styles are applyed, check the current size of the user screen, etc.



Watch the console

Another core plugin of Vorlon is the console. It will shows all console entries in your dashboard. If you put meaningful console logging into your app, this plugin is insanely usefull because you see in (almost) realtime what the user is doing, which is key to reproduce the issue. With some luck (and coding best practices), you could also have errors popping directly in the console with the stack trace (if the Promise god is with you). The console also feature an « immediate window » where you could issue simple JavaScript commands.


Check objects value

You could also have access to global JavaScript variables using Object explorer. This plugin allow you to watch values from your objects, and explore graph of objects. It’s always interesting to be able to keep an eye on your application state when trying to troubleshoot your application.


Monitoring CPU, memory, disk, …

You sometimes have to face more insidious bugs, like memory leaks, that usually requires advanced debugging tools. In the comfort of your dev box, you could use IDEs like Visual Studio to diagnose those bugs with specific tools. Modern browsers usually have similar tools, but does not have APIs to check things like memory or CPU that you could use remotely. Fortunately, when you are targeting Windows UWP, you could have access to all modern Windows APIs, and especially those about diagnostics.

That’s why the Vorlon team implemented a plugin specific to Windows UWP. It uses WinRT APIs for diagnostics and for different metadata from the client. For now, this plugin is not released, and you will have to look at the dev branch to try it out.


From the application metadata, you will get infos, such as its name, but also the application version, current language, and device family.


You will also have a glimpse at the network kind and status, and the battery level of the device.

It enables you to monitor the CPU, the memory and disk I/O. It’s especially usefull to track memory leaks, or excessive resources consumption.


And much more…

You have many more plugins within Vorlon that will help you diagnose your app, monitor xhr calls, explore resources like localstorage, check for accessibility and best practices, and so on. We cannot cover them all in one post, but I hope you get a decent idea of the many possibilities it is unlocking to help you improve your applications, both during development and more than anything, in your production environment. It’s especially usefull for mobile applications such as Windows UWP.

Writing plugin for Vorlon.js is really easy. You have to implement one javascript class for the client, and one other for displaying results in the dashboard. Writing a simple plugin can sometimes helps you save a lot of time because it can helps you analyse the problem when and where they occur. If you are proud of your plugin, submit it back to Vorlon.js !

Using Vorlon.js with your Windows 10 JavaScript UWP

Vorlon.js is a great tool for diagnosing and auditing any application built with web technologies, and Windows JavaScript applications, or UWP are no exception. It means you could use Vorlon to diagnose your app running on PC, tablet, phone, Xbox, Hololens, Raspberry Pi and any device supporting Windows IoT.

However, for being able to use Vorlon.js in a UWP, you will have to configure your application sandbox to enable communication between your app and Vorlon.js server (or desktop app).

In this post, we will illustrate the different aspects for a packaged application (a JavaScript application that embeds pages, scripts, styles, …) because it is the most complicated, but what we will see here will work equally well for a hosted app (an app where pages, scripts and styles are hosted on a web server). In fact, what we will see here could also help you using Vorlon.js in a webview for a C# application.

Put your application in web context

This step is very specific to packaged applications. Packaged applications runs in a very specific security context where resources can only be loaded from inside your package. It means that you cannot use a script tag which « src » attribute points to a resource outside of your package.

For using Vorlon, you will have to force your app into a web context, allowing you to use alien resources. Be aware that doing this is a weakpoint in your app’s sandbox. It’s not a major one but do it only if you have the need to.

Putting your app in web context is very easy. You just need to update a couple entries in the manifest of your application.

First, you must change your start page. If your start page is named « default.html », replace it with « ms-appx-web:///default.html ». You could do it by editing the appxmanifest.xml, or by opening your manifest within Visual Studio.


In application context, you have access to WinRT API, but not in web context. To bring it back; you must add your start page to Content URIs. Again, you could do it manually in your manifest or with Visual Studio. Go to the content URIs tab and add a URI to « ms-appx-web:///default.html ». Don’t forget to enable WinRT by choosing « All » in « WinRT Access ».


Allow your Vorlon.js client script

Now we must allow our app to access Vorlon.js client script. This step is required for packaged and hosted JavaScript UWP, or if you want to use Vorlon in a webview in a C# app.

First you must take note of your Vorlon.js server URI, and add it to the content URIs for your app. I will use a local Vorlon instance running on localhost on port 1337.

Open your manifest with Visual Studio and go to the Content URIs tab. Add Vorlon server URI to the list. In my case, I must add « http://localhost:1337 &raquo;.


Enjoy !

You are ready to go, just start your Vorlon server and your app. If you have followed the steps above, you are now able to inspect your app. The screen capture bellow shows the WinRT API with object explorer !


If it’s not working properly, look for messages in the console in Visual Studio. You probably have misspelled some URI and errors should show up there.

Happy Vorlon.js 🙂


Exploring Microsoft Speech APIs

This article introduces the speech APIs, one of the services updated in Windows 10 and powered by the project Oxford. This article is divided into several parts:

I.Speech APIs features 

These APIs provide two major features :

  • Speech Recognition : Speech To Text (STT)

It converts spoken audio to text. The APIs can recognize audio coming from the microphone in real-time, or from an audio file.

  • Speech Synthesizer : Text To Speech (TTS)

It converts text to spoken audio when applications need to talk back to their users.

Microsoft Speech Platform


The Speech APIs are included in Windows 10 libraries, and also provided by the project oxford services, which require an Azure subscription.

II. Project Oxford Speech APIs 

These APIs are in a beta version, they work by sending data to Microsoft servers in the cloud, to use them we must have an Azure account. They also offer the Intent Recognition feature which can convert spoken audio to intent.

To use these APIs, follow the steps below:

  1. Using an Azure account, go to the Market Place to purchase the speechAPIs Service (which is for free 😉 ), then retrieve the primary or secondary key. Just in case you are using the Azure DreamSpark subscription, don’t be surprised if you don’t find this service. Unfortunately this type of account does not give access to Oxford Services.
  2. Download the Speech SDK of project oxford from here! if you are targeting another platform rather than Windows, have a look here you will find what you are looking for.


  • Speech To Text (STT):

The oxford version of Speech APIs offers two choice to make the STT:

  2. Client library

When using the REST API, we only get one recognition result back at the end of the session, but in the case of a client library, we also get partial result before getting the final recognition.

Setting up speech recognition begins with the Speech Recognition Service Factory. By using this factory, we can create an object which can make a recognition request to the Speech Recognition Service. This factory can create two types of objects:

  1. A Data Recognition Client : used for speech recognition with data (for example from an audio file). The data is broken up into buffers and each buffer is sent to the Speech Recognition Service.
  2. A Microphone Recognition Client : used for speech recognition from the microphone. The microphone is turned on, and data is sent to the Speech Recognition Service.

When creating a client from the factory, it can be configured in one of two modes:

  1. In ShortPhrase mode, an utterance may only be up to 15 seconds long, As data is sent to the server, the client will receive multiple partial results and one final multiple N-best choice result.
  2. In LongDictation mode, an utterance may only be up to 2 minutes long. As data is sent to the server, the client will receive multiple partial results and multiple final results.

Also the client can be configured for one of the following several languages:

  • American English: « en-us »
  • British English: « en-gb »
  • German: « de-de »
  • Spanish: « es-es »
  • French: « fr-fr »
  • Italian: « it-it »
  • Mandarin: « zh-cn »

Now, time to code 😀 you can implement the code below in a WPF app

string stt_primaryOrSecondaryKey = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["primaryKey"];

// We have 2 choices : LongDictation or ShortPhrase
SpeechRecognitionMode stt_recoMode = SpeechRecognitionMode.LongDictation;

// For a Speech recognition from a Microphone
MicrophoneRecognitionClient stt_micClient = SpeechRecognitionServiceFactory.CreateMicrophoneClient(stt_recoMode, "fr-fr",

// For a Speech recognition from a data like wav file
DataRecognitionClient stt_dataClient = SpeechRecognitionServiceFactory.CreateDataClient(stt_recoMode, "fr-fr",

Then we must subscribe some events to get the result of the recognition. The Microphone Recognition Client & Data Recognition Client have the same Events as follow:

  • OnConversationError : Event fired when a conversation error occurs
  • OnIntent : Event fired when a Speech Recognition has finished, the recognized text has
    been parsed with LUIS for intent and entities, and the structured JSON result is available.
  • OnMicrophoneStatus : Event fired when the microphone recording status has changed.
  • OnPartialResponseReceived : Event fired when a partial response is received
  • OnResponseReceived : Event fired when a response is received

Inside the events, we can do whatever we want, displaying the result in a textBox for ex. and more…

// Event handlers for speech recognition results
sst_micClient.OnResponseReceived += OnResponseReceivedHandler;
sst_micClient.OnPartialResponseReceived += OnPartialResponseReceivedHandler;
sst_micClient.OnConversationError += OnConversationErrorHandler;
sst_micClient.OnMicrophoneStatus += OnMicrophoneStatus;

// Data Client event from an audio file for ex.
sst_dataClient.OnResponseReceived += OnResponseReceivedHandler;
sst_dataClient.OnPartialResponseReceived += OnPartialResponseReceivedHandler;
sst_dataClient.OnConversationError += OnConversationErrorHandler;

Now how do we start or stop the speech recognition? It’s simple, we just need to make a method call

// Turn on the microphone and stream audio to the Speech Recognition Service

// Turn off the microphone and the Speech Recognition

To convert an audio file to text, it’s easy, we just need to convert the file into a byte array and send it to the server for the recognition, like shown below:

if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(filename))
using (FileStream fileStream = new FileStream(filename, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read))
int bytesRead = 0;
byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];

bytesRead = fileStream.Read(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);
// Send of audio data to cloud service.
sst_dataClient.SendAudio(buffer, bytesRead);
} while (bytesRead &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;gt; 0);

  • Text To Speech (TTS)

The TTS feature of project oxford can be used only through the REST API, and we have a complete example here.

The end-point to access the service is: https://speech.platform.bing.com/synthesize

The API uses HTTP POST to send audio back to the client. The maximum amount of audio returned for a given request will not exceed 15 seconds.

For any question about using this API, please refer to TTS through REST API documentation

III. Windows 10 Speech APIs

Windows 10 Speech APIs support all Windows 10 based devices including IoT hardware, phones, tablets, and PCs.

The Speech APIs in Windows 10 are represented under this two namespaces :


  1. Windows 10
  2. Visual Studio 2015
  3. Make sure that Windows Universal App Development Tools are installed in VS2015.

First of all we have to create a Windows 10 Universal application project in visual studio : New Project dialog box, click Visual C# > Windows > Windows Universal > Blank App (Windows Universal).

With Windows 10, applications don’t have the permission to use the microphone by default, so you must at first change the parameters of the universal application as follows:

Double click on the file Package.appxmanifest > Capablilites > Microphone > select the check box.

Note: The Windows 10 Speech APIs are using the languages installed in the Operating System.

  • Speech To Text (STT)

The STT feature using Windows 10 APIs works in online mode, if we want to make it available in offline mode we have to provide the necessary grammar manually.

To make this feature works we have 3 steps:

  • Create a SpeechRecognizer object,
  • Create an other object from SpeechRecognitionConstraint type and add it to the SpeechRecognizer object already created,
  • Compile the constraints.

SpeechRecognizer supports 2 types of recognition sessions:

  1. Continuous recognition sessions for prolonged audio input. A continuous session needs to be either explicitly ended or automatically times out after a configurable period of silence (default is 20 seconds).
  2. Speech recognition session for recognizing a short phrase. The session is terminated and the recognition results returned when a pause is detected by the recognizer.

Like shown in the code below

SpeechRecognizer speechRecognizer = new SpeechRecognizer();
// Here we choose a simple constraints scenario of dictation
var dictationConstraint = new SpeechRecognitionTopicConstraint(SpeechRecognitionScenario.Dictation, "dictation");
SpeechRecognitionCompilationResult result = await speechRecognizer.CompileConstraintsAsync();

A continuous recognition session can be started by calling SpeechRecognizer.ContinuousRecognitionSession.StartAsync() method and can be stoped by calling speechRecognizer.ContinuousRecognitionSession.StopAsync(). The SpeechRecognizer.ContinuousRecognitionSession object provides two events :

  • Completed : Occurs when a continuous recognition session ends.
  • ResultGenerated : Occurs when the speech recognizer returns the result from a continuous recognition session.

We have another event tied to the speechRecognizer object, which is the HypothesisGenerated event, occurs when a recognition result fragment is returned by the speech recognizer.

The code below show how to start the recognition:

public async void StartRecognition()
// The recognizer can only start listening in a continuous fashion if the recognizer is urrently idle.
// This prevents an exception from occurring.
if (speechRecognizer.State == SpeechRecognizerState.Idle)
await speechRecognizer.ContinuousRecognitionSession.StartAsync();
catch (Exception ex)
var messageDialog = new Windows.UI.Popups.MessageDialog(ex.Message, "Exception");
await messageDialog.ShowAsync();

To stop the recognition :

public async void StopRecognition()
if (speechRecognizer.State != SpeechRecognizerState.Idle)
await speechRecognizer.ContinuousRecognitionSession.StopAsync();

TXB_SpeechToText.Text = dictatedTextBuilder.ToString();
catch (Exception exception)
var messageDialog = new Windows.UI.Popups.MessageDialog(exception.Message, "Exception");
await messageDialog.ShowAsync();


  • Text To Speech (TTS)

This feature is available in offline and online mode, to make it works we have to create a SpeechSynthesizer object, then we set the speech synthesizer engine (voice) and generate a stream from the speechSynthesizer.SynthesizeTextToStreamAsync method by passing the text we want to read in parameter.

To read the stream we have to use a MediaElement object, like shown in the code below:

SpeechSynthesizer speechSynthesizer = new SpeechSynthesizer();
speechSynthesizer.Voice = SpeechSynthesizer.DefaultVoice;
//Init the media element which will wrap tthe text to speech
MediaElement mediaElement = new MediaElement();
//We have to add the mediaElement to the Grid otherwise it won't work

var stream = await speechSynthesizer.SynthesizeTextToStreamAsync("Hello World!");
mediaElement.SetSource(stream, stream.ContentType);

Managing voice commands using the STT and TTS features

We can make the applications implementing these APIs more interactive, by passing some commands using voice. Once the command is executed, the app will confirm this, using the TTS feature. To do that, we can use the STT events, like shown in the code below:

private async  void ContinuousRecognitionSession_ResultGenerated(SpeechContinuousRecognitionSession sender, SpeechContinuousRecognitionResultGeneratedEventArgs args)
// We can ignore the generated text using the level of the conversion confidence (Low,Medium,High)
if (args.Result.Confidence == SpeechRecognitionConfidence.Medium || args.Result.Confidence == SpeechRecognitionConfidence.High)
// The key word to activate any command
//ex. user says : text red, the key word is text and the command is red
string command = "text";

if (args.Result.Text.ToLower().Contains(command))
string result = args.Result.Text.ToLower();
string value = result.Substring(result.IndexOf(command) + command.Length + 1).ToLower();
//The generated text may ends with a point
value = value.Replace(".", "");
switch (value)
case "in line": case "line": case "in-line":
dictatedTextBuilder.AppendFormat("{0}", Environment.NewLine);
await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
ReadSpecilaCommandToUser("Carriage return command is activated");
case "blue":
await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
TXB_SpeechToText.Foreground = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Blue);
ReadSpecilaCommandToUser("Blue color command is activated");
case "red":
await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
TXB_SpeechToText.Foreground = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Red);
ReadSpecilaCommandToUser("Red color command is activated");
case "green":
await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
TXB_SpeechToText.Foreground = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Green);
ReadSpecilaCommandToUser("Green color command is activated");
case "black":
await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
TXB_SpeechToText.Foreground = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Black);
ReadSpecilaCommandToUser("Black color command is activated");
dictatedTextBuilder.Append(args.Result.Text + " ");

await dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
TXB_SpeechToText.Text = dictatedTextBuilder.ToString();



private async void ReadSpecilaCommandToUser(string text)
if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(text))
using (SpeechSynthesizer speech = new SpeechSynthesizer())
speech.Voice = SpeechSynthesizer.AllVoices.FirstOrDefault(item => item.Language.Equals(language.LanguageTag));
SpeechSynthesisStream stream = await speech.SynthesizeTextToStreamAsync(text);

mediaElement.SetSource(stream, stream.ContentType);


IV. Demo

The video below shows how to edit text by voice, the app is using the Windows 10 Speech APIs:

Going further


Speech APIs – Universal Windows Platform:

SpeechAPIs – Project Oxford: https://github.com/Microsoft/ProjectOxford-ClientSDK/tree/master/Speech

Project Oxford : https://www.projectoxford.ai

Le Windows Store for Business de Microsoft est enfin là !

Après plusieurs mois d’attente le « Business Store » est enfin disponible et accessible gratuitement avec quelques prérequis :

  • Avoir un Azure Active Directory.
  • Des postes clients sous Windows 10 uniquement (Desktop/Phone)
  • (Énormément de patience pour le déploiement…)

(Pour les clients sous Windows 8 et Windows 8.1, ou ceux qui n’ont pas d’Azure AD, nous avons une solution pour vous !)

Comment s’inscrire ?

La première étape se déroule sur https://businessstore.microsoft.com, l’administrateur général de l’AD se connecte avec le compte de l’organisation.

La création du store est immédiate, mais son déploiement prend du temps.

L’administrateur peut attribuer les droits à d’autres utilisateurs de l’AD de gérer le store (directement dans le BO du store) pour les actes d’achats, d’attributions de licences et de publications.


Les applications grand public :

Après « l’achat » (visiblement pour l’instant nous ne pouvons acheter que des applications gratuites), l’attribution de la licence peut être globale (au niveau de l’organisation), par groupe ou par utilisateur. Le déploiement prend plusieurs heures (+12h)


 Les application LOB :

Le processus est long puisqu’il se passe en plusieurs actes :

  • Premier acte :
    • L’administrateur invite un éditeur LOB avec une adresse mail pour que celui-ci puisse attribuer à l’organisation une ou des applications. (Éditeur LOB = un simple compte de développement qui possède un accès au Windows Dev Center https://dev.windows.com)


  • Deuxième acte :
    • L’éditeur publie ou met à jour une application en précisant dans la section « tarifs et disponibilités », le store d’entreprise qu’il souhaite viser (une même app LOB peut être diffusée sur différents Business Stores).
  • Troisième acte :
    • Après la validation de l’application par Microsoft (cette étape dure entre quelques heures à quelques jours), l’application est disponible coté BO du Business Store, et c’est à ce moment là que l’administrateur peut l’ajouter au catalogue, de la même manière qu’une application grand public (avec les droits qui vont avec et l’attente du déploiement qui prend aussi plusieurs heures)

Configuration du poste client (Desktop/Phone):

L’étape la plus simple se passe coté poste client où il suffit de se connecter ou d’ajouter (si ce n’est pas déjà le cas) le compte utilisateur rattaché à l’AD directement dans l’application du store. Un nouvel onglet va apparaitre avec la liste des applications attribuées que l’utilisateur pourra alors installer.

Sans titre.png

A vos déploiements !

#UWPXAML – Compiled Binding – Incremental rendering with x:Phase

Coming with Windows 10 are a lot of new features especially for XAML when creating a Universal Windows Platform application aka. UWP app. We can mention a few of them: new controls (as the RelativePanel, the SplitView and more); new tools for building responsive and adaptive UI (AdaptiveTrigger, Extension SDKs, etc.); and a new way to bind data to the UI, Compiled Binding.

This series on Compiled Binding will be composed of several parts:


Dealing with long list of data

You often have to work on apps that have a great deal of data. Those data are best displayed on list when they’re of same type, and you generally want to let your users scroll through it without noticeable performance issues.

To enable this, virtualized lists have been created.

Only a handful of items, that are visible to the user, are rendered at the same time while other items are simply not rendered at all. When the user scrolls through the list, rendered items are recycled to match where the user is in the list, thus keeping your memory usage low while still giving to your user what he needs.

This gives your users the illusion that your app is fast.

But sometimes, your items’ DataTemplate can be complex and when the user scrolls through the list, the CPU might not keep up and fully render new items in time. In that case, the list will display placeholder items until rendered items are ready. A quirky user experience may result from that.

To help you have more control on how to optimize the rendering of your items in those circumstances, Windows 8.1 added the event ContainerContentChanging allowing you to progressively render your items in a ListViewBase-derived control.

ContainerContentChanging event

The idea behind ContainerContentChanging is quite simple. By handling that event, you can progressively render the items that are visible to the user. This is done by using phases.

Let’s say that you have a list of books, each with a title, a subtitle and a description.
The most important information of your books is the Title property, so it must be displayed whenever possible. The Subtitle property is important but not crucial for the user experience while the Description property is not important.

With the ContainerContentChanging event, you can delay the rendering of the Subtitle and Description properties to later, when the CPU will be more available. The event is called multiple times if necessary, for each pair of container / data that need to be rendered.

Each time the event is raised for the same container / data pair is called a phase. The phase number is provided through the ContainerContentChangingArgs parameter, Phase property.

You can then check the phase number to decide which information should be loaded according to your importance scale.

There we can decide to let the Title property on Phase 0, the Subtitle property on Phase 1 and the Description property on Phase 2.

Phase 0 will be part of the first rendering of the item, while Phase 1 will be done once all current items’ Phase 0 have been rendered, and so on until all phases of all items are done.

Here’s an example that can be found on MSDN:
ListView and GridView UI optimization



    <Grid Background="{ThemeResource ApplicationPageBackgroundThemeBrush}">
        <GridView ItemsSource="{x:Bind ViewModel.ExampleItems}" ContainerContentChanging="GridView_ContainerContentChanging">
                <DataTemplate x:DataType="lotsOfItems:ExampleItem">
                    <StackPanel Height="100" Width="100" Background="OrangeRed">
                        <TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Title}"/>
                        <TextBlock Opacity="0"/>
                        <TextBlock Opacity="0"/>


namespace LotsOfItems
    /// <summary>
    /// An empty page that can be used on its own or navigated to within a Frame.
    /// </summary>
    public sealed partial class MainPage : Page
        public MainPage()
            this.ViewModel = new ExampleItemViewModel();

        public ExampleItemViewModel ViewModel { get; set; }

        // Display each item incrementally to improve performance.
        private void GridView_ContainerContentChanging(ListViewBase sender, ContainerContentChangingEventArgs args)
            if (args.Phase != 0)
                throw new System.Exception("We should be in phase 0, but we are not.");

            // It's phase 0, so this item's title will already be bound and displayed.


            args.Handled = true;

        private void ShowSubtitle(ListViewBase sender, ContainerContentChangingEventArgs args)
            if (args.Phase != 1)
                throw new System.Exception("We should be in phase 1, but we are not.");

            // It's phase 1, so show this item's subtitle.
            var templateRoot = args.ItemContainer.ContentTemplateRoot as StackPanel;
            var textBlock = templateRoot.Children[1] as TextBlock;
            textBlock.Text = (args.Item as ExampleItem).Subtitle;
            textBlock.Opacity = 1;


        private void ShowDescription(ListViewBase sender, ContainerContentChangingEventArgs args)
            if (args.Phase != 2)
                throw new System.Exception("We should be in phase 2, but we are not.");

            // It's phase 2, so show this item's description.
            var templateRoot = args.ItemContainer.ContentTemplateRoot as StackPanel;
            var textBlock = templateRoot.Children[2] as TextBlock;
            textBlock.Text = (args.Item as ExampleItem).Description;
            textBlock.Opacity = 1;

As you can see, our DataTemplate contains three TextBlocks: one for the Title property, one for the Subtitle property and one for the Description property.

Title being the most important, the control is already databound in the DataTemplate while the others are simply not set and are even hidden from users with Opacity at 0.

Then we add an event handler to the ContainerContentChanging event of the GridView.

When the event is raised in GridView_ContainerContentChanging method, it is Phase 0, the book’s title is rendered.


To notify that we expect another phase to occur, we register an update callback through the ContainerContentChangingArgs.RegisterUpdateCallback method. In that callback, that will be called once all items’ Phase 0 are done, we retrieve the second TextBlock control to load its content, the book’s Subtitle, and display it by setting the Opacity to 1.


Once it’s done, we register for a third phase to display the book’s description.


If the user has scrolled past too many items and the list control wants to recycle containers before we have rendered all the phases, ContainerContentChanging is no longer called for these container / data pairs and the containers are recycled for other data, thus ending the rendering of those previous items.

While ContainerContentChanging is simple to use, its implementation can be quite tedious. Even more when you need to change the DataTemplate over the course of development, you found yourself re-implementing it over and over.

There comes to the rescue {x:Bind} and its x:Phase attribute.

Simplifying ContainerContentChanging with x:Phase

Based on the ContainerContentChanging event, x:Bind introduces a shortcut notation to use those rendering phases: x:Phase.

It uses the exact same principle that we’ve seen on the last example, except you don’t have to implement ContainerContentChanging. It’s done for you by code-generation when using {x:Bind}.

To use it, it’s really simple. Just set the x:Phase attribute on an {x:Bind} databound control.


<GridView ItemsSource="{x:Bind ViewModel.ExampleItems}">
        <DataTemplate x:DataType="lotsOfItems:ExampleItem">
            <StackPanel Height="100" Width="100" Background="OrangeRed">
                <TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Title}"/>
                <TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Subtitle}" x:Phase="1"/>
                <TextBlock Text="{x:Bind Description}" x:Phase="2"/>

As we’ve seen with ContainerContentChanging, the higher the phase number, the later the control will be rendered. If no phase is set, it’ll be 0 by default.

Note: Those phases don’t have to be contiguous with x:Phase.

In this case, the CPU will try to render the book’s title, then the book’s subtitle and finally the book’s description instead of trying to render them all at once and failing to keep up with the scroll applied by the user.

When the control’s phase is not yet reached, they are set to Opacity=0 thus hiding them. When their phase is reached, the compiled binding is resolved and the controls are displayed.

The result is the same but it is less tedious to implement. You just have to set an attribute on the databound control as opposed to doing a whole implementation of the ContainerContentChanging event.

Later, if you need to change the DataTemplate, it will be way easier.

Just one thing, x:Phase needs x:Bind in order to work. If not present, x:Phase will simply be ignored. So if you need to delay the rendering of a not-databound control, you still have to use the ContainerContentChanging event, that also applies if you need more than just hiding a control for a time.

Going further

« x:Phase attribute »

« ListView and GridView UI optimization »

Channel 9
« Improving XAML performance »

Build 2015
« Data Binding: Boost Your Apps’ Performance Through New Enhancements to XAML Data Binding » https://channel9.msdn.com/Events/Build/2015/3-635

#UWPXAML – Compiled Binding – Binding to events

Coming with Windows 10 are a lot of new features especially for XAML when creating a Universal Windows Platform application aka. UWP app. We can mention a few of them: new controls (as the RelativePanel, the SplitView and more); new tools for building responsive and adaptive UI (AdaptiveTrigger, Extension SDKs, etc.); and a new way to bind data to the UI, Compiled Binding.

This series on Compiled Binding will be composed of several parts:


{x:Bind} and events

As we’ve seen in the previous part « Part 1: Binding to data« , x:Bind is great when you want to bind various source of data to your UI. It does mostly the same things as classic binding but with better performance and compile-time checks.

x:Bind doesn’t stop here. It goes a step further than its cousin: it can also bind event handlers to events, regardless if it has been thought by the control’s author unlike {Binding}, which needs ICommand support to be built into the control.

All that in a natural way thanks to code generation introduced by compiled binding.

Before {x:Bind}

Before compiled binding, you had three ways to handle events in XAML.

1st Way: Register an event handler defined in your code behind directly to your control’s event in XAML. That’s the most common way of doing it as it’s how the XAML framework has been built.

<Button Click="CodeBehind_ButtonClicked" />


2nd Way: Use Command properties when available in conjunction with ICommand. This allows you to define your event handler outside the code-behind class, like in your ViewModel.

public class ViewModel
    private ICommand _clickCommand;
    public ICommand ClickCommand
        get { return (_clickCommand ?? _clickCommand = new RelayCommand<object>(this.OnButtonClicked)); }

    private void OnButtonClicked(object parameter) { ... }

Then in your XAML file, you just have to bind to it.

<Button Command="{Binding ClickCommand}" CommandParameter="HelloWorld" />

One limitation: the control must have built-in support for it. And well, apart from Button and its Command property, barely any other control have such thing.

For example, if you want to handle SelectionChanged of ListView, there isn’t any property allowing you to react to SelectionChanged event from your ViewModel without using the first way we saw.

3rd Way: Use Behavior to bind ICommand to any event.

        <i:EventTrigger EventName="SelectionChanged">
            <command:EventToCommand Command="{Binding SelectionChangedCommand}" />

To get around the previous limitation, Blend added an Interactions SDK that allows you, among other things, to create custom behaviors. These behaviors can be attached to controls, that way you can extend on the control’s behavior without having to create another control that inherits from the former.

You can create a behavior that subscribes to whatever event you need and let it call your ICommand, just like the Command property of Button does.

Behaviors with this purpose already exist in MVVM libraries such as EventToCommand from the well-known MVVMLight.

{x:Bind}, the Event Handler

Now in UWP apps, you have another way to do so: {x:Bind}.

Let’s say you have a ViewModel and you want to handle the SelectionChanged event of a ListView in a method named OnSelectionChanged, that is in your ViewModel.

public class MyPageViewModel
    public ObservableCollection<Book> Books { get; set; }

    public void OnSelectionChanged(object sender, SelectionChangedEventArgs args) { ... }

With {x:Bind}, all you have to do is just bind OnSelectionChanged of your ViewModel to the event you want to handle.

<ListView ItemsSource="{x:Bind ViewModel.Books}" SelectionChanged="{x:Bind ViewModel.OnSelectionChanged}" />

There, you just bound yourself an event! It’s that easy.

As you can see, to hook up an event to a method, you just need to use the same markup extension like you would with data binding. Behind, the compiler will add the required logic to call your method when the event is raised.

But when doing so, the compiler expects that the method you try to bind is public and respects one of these conditions:

  • Have the exact event signature
  • Have the same event signature, but parameters can be of a more generic type (up to object)
  • Have no parameter at all

Let’s take a look at how to meet these conditions when binding to the Click event of a button.


<Button Click="{x:Bind OnButtonClicked}" />


// Exact event signature
public void OnButtonClicked(object sender, RoutedEventArgs args) { … }

// Same event signature, args' type is more generic (RoutedEventArgs --> EventArgs)
public void OnButtonClicked(object sender, EventArgs args) { … }

// Same event signature, args' type is now object
public void OnButtonClicked(object sender, object args) { … }

// No parameter
public void OnButtonClicked() { … }

Asynchronous methods are also supported, just set the « async » keyword on your method signature.

// Asynchronous event handler
public async void OnButtonClicked() { … }

Where can I put those methods, you may ask.

Well, you can put them in your code-behind class (this is x:Bind’s root context, remember?) or you can put them in your ViewModel! No need for ICommand nor EventToCommand behavior now. It just got a whole lot easier compared to what we were used to with classic binding, while using MVVM.

<!-- OnButtonClicked declared in code-behind (except when used in DataTemplate) -->
<Button Click="{x:Bind OnButtonClicked}" />

<!-- OnButtonClicked declared in the ViewModel -->
<Button Click="{x:Bind ViewModel.OnButtonClicked}" />

<!-- OnButtonClicked declared on a data model exposed by the ViewModel -->
<Button Click="{x:Bind ViewModel.LastReadBook.OnButtonClicked}" />


Moving on to the last part

We’ve seen pretty much everything x:Bind can offer, or have we?
There is one last neat feature that x:Bind brings: Incremental rendering in list controls.
To learn more about this, head to « Part 3: Incremental rendering with x:Phase« .